» OpenStack Builder

Type: openstack

The openstack Packer builder is able to create new images for use with OpenStack. The builder takes a source image, runs any provisioning necessary on the image after launching it, then creates a new reusable image. This reusable image can then be used as the foundation of new servers that are launched within OpenStack. The builder will create temporary keypairs that provide temporary access to the server while the image is being created. This simplifies configuration quite a bit.

The builder does not manage images. Once it creates an image, it is up to you to use it or delete it.

» Configuration Reference

There are many configuration options available for the builder. They are segmented below into two categories: required and optional parameters. Within each category, the available configuration keys are alphabetized.

In addition to the options listed here, a communicator can be configured for this builder.

» Required:

  • flavor (string) - The ID, name, or full URL for the desired flavor for the server to be created.

  • image_name (string) - The name of the resulting image.

  • identity_endpoint (string) - The URL to the OpenStack Identity service. If not specified, Packer will use the environment variables OS_AUTH_URL, if set.

  • source_image (string) - The ID or full URL to the base image to use. This is the image that will be used to launch a new server and provision it. Unless you specify completely custom SSH settings, the source image must have cloud-init installed so that the keypair gets assigned properly.

  • source_image_name (string) - The name of the base image to use. This is an alternative way of providing source_image and only either of them can be specified.

  • username or user_id (string) - The username or id used to connect to the OpenStack service. If not specified, Packer will use the environment variable OS_USERNAME or OS_USERID, if set.

  • password (string) - The password used to connect to the OpenStack service. If not specified, Packer will use the environment variables OS_PASSWORD, if set.

» Optional:

  • availability_zone (string) - The availability zone to launch the server in. If this isn't specified, the default enforced by your OpenStack cluster will be used. This may be required for some OpenStack clusters.

  • cacert (string) - Custom CA certificate file path. If omitted the OS_CACERT environment variable can be used.

  • config_drive (boolean) - Whether or not nova should use ConfigDrive for cloud-init metadata.

  • cert (string) - Client certificate file path for SSL client authentication. If omitted the OS_CERT environment variable can be used.

  • domain_name or domain_id (string) - The Domain name or ID you are authenticating with. OpenStack installations require this if identity v3 is used. Packer will use the environment variable OS_DOMAIN_NAME or OS_DOMAIN_ID, if set.

  • endpoint_type (string) - The endpoint type to use. Can be any of "internal", "internalURL", "admin", "adminURL", "public", and "publicURL". By default this is "public".

  • floating_ip (string) - A specific floating IP to assign to this instance.

  • floating_ip_pool (string) - The name of the floating IP pool to use to allocate a floating IP.

  • image_members (array of strings) - List of members to add to the image after creation. An image member is usually a project (also called the “tenant”) with whom the image is shared.

  • image_visibility (string) - One of "public", "private", "shared", or "community".

  • insecure (boolean) - Whether or not the connection to OpenStack can be done over an insecure connection. By default this is false.

  • key (string) - Client private key file path for SSL client authentication. If omitted the OS_KEY environment variable can be used.

  • metadata (object of key/value strings) - Glance metadata that will be applied to the image.

  • instance_name (string) - Name that is applied to the server instance created by Packer. If this isn't specified, the default is same as image_name.

  • instance_metadata (object of key/value strings) - Metadata that is applied to the server instance created by Packer. Also called server properties in some documentation. The strings have a max size of 255 bytes each.

  • networks (array of strings) - A list of networks by UUID to attach to this instance.

  • rackconnect_wait (boolean) - For rackspace, whether or not to wait for Rackconnect to assign the machine an IP address before connecting via SSH. Defaults to false.

  • region (string) - The name of the region, such as "DFW", in which to launch the server to create the AMI. If not specified, Packer will use the environment variable OS_REGION_NAME, if set.

  • reuse_ips (boolean) - Whether or not to attempt to reuse existing unassigned floating ips in the project before allocating a new one. Note that it is not possible to safely do this concurrently, so if you are running multiple openstack builds concurrently, or if other processes are assigning and using floating IPs in the same openstack project while packer is running, you should not set this to true. Defaults to false.

  • security_groups (array of strings) - A list of security groups by name to add to this instance.

  • ssh_interface (string) - The type of interface to connect via SSH. Values useful for Rackspace are "public" or "private", and the default behavior is to connect via whichever is returned first from the OpenStack API.

  • ssh_ip_version (string) - The IP version to use for SSH connections, valid values are 4 and 6. Useful on dual stacked instances where the default behavior is to connect via whichever IP address is returned first from the OpenStack API.

  • ssh_keypair_name (string) - If specified, this is the key that will be used for SSH with the machine. By default, this is blank, and Packer will generate a temporary keypair. ssh_password is used. ssh_private_key_file or ssh_agent_auth must be specified when ssh_keypair_name is utilized.

  • ssh_agent_auth (boolean) - If true, the local SSH agent will be used to authenticate connections to the source instance. No temporary keypair will be created, and the values of ssh_password and ssh_private_key_file will be ignored. To use this option with a key pair already configured in the source image, leave the ssh_keypair_name blank. To associate an existing key pair with the source instance, set the ssh_keypair_name field to the name of the key pair.

  • temporary_key_pair_name (string) - The name of the temporary key pair to generate. By default, Packer generates a name that looks like packer_<UUID>, where <UUID> is a 36 character unique identifier.

  • tenant_id or tenant_name (string) - The tenant ID or name to boot the instance into. Some OpenStack installations require this. If not specified, Packer will use the environment variable OS_TENANT_NAME, if set. Tenant is also called Project in later versions of OpenStack.

  • use_floating_ip (boolean) - Deprecated use floating_ip or floating_ip_pool instead.

  • user_data (string) - User data to apply when launching the instance. Note that you need to be careful about escaping characters due to the templates being JSON. It is often more convenient to use user_data_file, instead.

  • user_data_file (string) - Path to a file that will be used for the user data when launching the instance.

» Basic Example: DevStack

Here is a basic example. This is a example to build on DevStack running in a VM.

  "type": "openstack",
  "identity_endpoint": "http://<destack-ip>:5000/v3",
  "tenant_name": "admin",
  "domain_name": "Default",
  "username": "admin",
  "password": "<your admin password>",
  "region": "RegionOne",
  "ssh_username": "root",
  "image_name": "Test image",
  "source_image": "<image id>",
  "flavor": "m1.tiny",
  "insecure": "true"

» Basic Example: Rackspace public cloud

Here is a basic example. This is a working example to build a Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin) on Rackspace OpenStack cloud offering.

  "type": "openstack",
  "username": "foo",
  "password": "foo",
  "region": "DFW",
  "ssh_username": "root",
  "image_name": "Test image",
  "source_image": "23b564c9-c3e6-49f9-bc68-86c7a9ab5018",
  "flavor": "2"

» Basic Example: Private OpenStack cloud

This example builds an Ubuntu 14.04 image on a private OpenStack cloud, powered by Metacloud.

  "type": "openstack",
  "ssh_username": "root",
  "image_name": "ubuntu1404_packer_test_1",
  "source_image": "91d9c168-d1e5-49ca-a775-3bfdbb6c97f1",
  "flavor": "2"

In this case, the connection information for connecting to OpenStack doesn't appear in the template. That is because I source a standard OpenStack script with environment variables set before I run this. This script is setting environment variables like:


This is slightly different when identity v3 is used:


This will authenticate the user on the domain and scope you to the project. A tenant is the same as a project. It's optional to use names or IDs in v3. This means you can use OS_USERNAME or OS_USERID, OS_TENANT_ID or OS_TENANT_NAME and OS_DOMAIN_ID or OS_DOMAIN_NAME.

The above example would be equivalent to an RC file looking like this :

export OS_AUTH_URL="https://identity.myprovider/v3"
export OS_USERNAME="myuser"
export OS_PASSWORD="password"
export OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME="mydomain"
export OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME="mydomain"

» Notes on OpenStack Authorization

The simplest way to get all settings for authorization agains OpenStack is to go into the OpenStack Dashboard (Horizon) select your Project and navigate Project, Access & Security, select API Access and Download OpenStack RC File v3. Source the file, and select your wanted region by setting environment variable OS_REGION_NAME or OS_REGION_ID and export OS_TENANT_NAME=$OS_PROJECT_NAME or export OS_TENANT_ID=$OS_PROJECT_ID.

To troubleshoot authorization issues test you environment variables with the OpenStack cli. It can be installed with

$ pip install --user python-openstackclient